—— Where exceptions happen.

2005年3月9日星期三

什么是人身攻击

http://www.intrepidsoftware.com/fallacy/attack.php
偶然发现这篇东西,翻译一下。有讨论就总免不了这个,或许有些作用。

Attacking the Person (argumentum ad hominem)
人身攻击(诉诸情绪的辩论)

Definition:
定义

The person presenting an argument is attacked instead of the argument itself. This takes many forms. For example,the person's character, nationality or religion may be attacked. Alternatively, it may be pointed out that a person stands to gain from a favourable outcome. Or, finally, a person may be attacked by association, or by the company he keeps.

在辩论中,不针对对方观点而针对对方本人进行攻击。这种攻击有许多形式。例如,他的性格或能力,国籍或信仰都可能被攻击。或者,也可以指出某人的立场是为了获得某种好处。还有最后一招,可以攻击他所在的集体,或者公司。

There are three major forms of Attacking the Person:

  1. ad hominem (abusive): instead of attacking an assertion, the argument attacks the person who made the assertion.
  2. ad hominem (circumstantial): instead of attacking an assertion the author points to the relationship between the person making the assertion and the person's circumstances.
  3. ad hominem (tu quoque): this form of attack on the person notes that a person does not practise what he preaches.

人身攻击有三种主要形式:

  1. 诉诸感情的(谩骂):攻击不针对观点,而是针对提出观点的个人本身。
  2. 诉诸感情的(罗织):攻击不针对观点,而是针对提出观点的人和他的社会关系
  3. 诉诸感情的(反唇相讥): 这种形式的人身攻击指出某人没有做到他自己所鼓吹的东西。

Examples:

  • You may argue that God doesn't exist, but you are just following a fad. (ad hominem abusive)
  • We should discount what Premier Klein says about taxation because he won't be hurt by the increase. (ad hominem circumstantial)
  • We should disregard Share B.C.'s argument because they are being funded by the logging industry. (ad hominem circumstantial)
  • You say I shouldn't drink, but you haven't been sober for more than a year. (ad hominem tu quoque)

例子:

  • 你可以声称上帝不存在,但你只是盲从潮流。(谩骂)
  • 我们应该不考虑Premier Klein关于税制的观点,因为加税对他毫无损失。(罗织)
  • 我们应该不考虑Share B.C.的观点,因为他们接受伐木业的投资。(罗织)
  • 你说我不该喝酒,但你自己从没有超过一年的清醒时间。(反唇相讥)


Proof:
Identify the attack and show that the character or circumstances of the person has nothing to do with the truth or falsity of the proposition being defended.
证明:
识别攻击并且指出人的特点和社会关系与需要辩护的观点的正确错误并无关系。

References:
Barker: 166, Cedarblom and Paulsen: 155, Copi and Cohen: 97, Davis: 80

1 留言:

晓亮 说...

感谢博主!这样系统全面地论述“什么是人身攻击”的文章很少,我已经转载到我的论坛里作为界定人身攻击的说明。再次感谢!

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